Java and C are two programming languages that have had a major impact on the way humans view coding and development.

C was one of the earliest languages to be developed and served as the foundation for a lot of other languages including Python, C++, C#, etc. With its robustness and plethora of features, Java is among the most popular and diverse languages.

Since almost all coding enthusiasts are interested in learning the comparison between c vs java. it would be very helpful for them to do so. Let’s take a moment to understand each of these languages separately.

Introduction to C as a programming language

Dennis Ritchie developed C in 1972 and 1973 at Bell Labs, one of the oldest general-purpose programming languages of all time. As part of the implementation of the Unix kernel, C was used to construct utilities running on Unix.

C vs Java | Detailed Comparision | 2022 1
Dennis Ritchie

The development of firmware and portable systems is one of the main uses for C in today’s world. Among the many features of C is its support for structured programming, lexical variable scope, and recursion, as well as its static type system.

Because it combines features from both high-level and low-level languages, C is also classified as a middle-level language.

Features of C

  • Easy to learn
  • Structured language
  • C is an important and core computer programming language. If a person knows C then learning other programming languages will become easier.
  • Portable and extensible programming language.
  • The Size of C is small because it has only 32 keywords which makes it easier to learn.

Advantages of using C as a programming language

1. Easy to understand

People choose C over other programming languages because of its simplicity. The programs written in C are much faster and more efficient than those in other languages.

This makes learning C easier than learning other languages. C is an easy language to understand because there aren’t many keywords or symbols.

2. Presence of many Libraries

Language C has a number of built-in functions, some of which are generated by the system, and some of which are defined by the user.

In C Compiler, general functions can be used to develop a program, as well as user-defined functions, which are created as per the requirements of the programmer.

3. Easy to write

C is also popular because it allows programmers to create their own software without worrying about syntax errors.

It is better to use structured language C if you are not familiar with coding. Compared to other programming languages, C allows you to create more efficient and effective solutions.

4. Fast execution speed

It may be the right choice for you if you want your application to run quickly. C uses fewer instructions than other programming languages like Java, Ruby, PHP, etc., so it executes faster.

5. Dynamic memory allocation

Memory can be allocated dynamically or statically in C Language. During dynamic allocation, we don’t know how much space our data structure will require at runtime.

However, if we use static allocation, we must set aside a fixed amount of memory before executing the application. Due to this feature, we are more flexible than other languages like Java, where all variables must be declared final.

Dynamic memory allocation allows you to distribute memory at runtime. If, for instance, you do not know how much memory your program’s objects will require, then you can proceed to run a program in C while appointing the memory.

Disadvantages of C as a programming language

1. Lack of Object Orientation

C is a powerful language that follows the procedural programming approach and is very vast and powerful.

It does not provide any support for OOPs (Inheritance, Polymorphism, Encapsulation, Abstraction, and Data Hiding). Unlike Java, Python, or C++, you cannot create a class that has multiple inheritances here.

Java represents object-oriented programming by allowing methods to be inherited from the parent class. In contrast, C doesn’t support this concept. We can’t create subclasses for our classes. As a result, it is difficult to reuse existing code.

2. Inefficient Memory Management

C Language automatically manages all allocated resources on your behalf, so you don’t need to use any memory management techniques. You can, however, use dynamic allocation by using the malloc function if you want it.

Manually doing this will result in a segmentation fault error. Memory management techniques should always be used.

3. Run-time checking

Errors are not detected after every line of code in the C programming language. As a result, the compiler only shows all the errors in the code while the program is running, making the process of checking the program (debugging) exceptionally difficult in large projects.

Additionally, the compiler doesn’t verify that variables were declared before they were used. Programmers should keep this in mind when writing code.

Introduction to Java as a programming languageC vs Java | Detailed Comparision | 2022 2

Java is one of today’s most versatile languages was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which was acquired by Oracle in 2013.

Java is widely used by hundreds of software companies and millions of developers around the world for building applications for solving real-world problems.

As few implementation dependencies as possible are built into Java, an object-oriented programming language.

WORA – Write Once, Read Anywhere – is supported by Java. Compiled Java code can be run on all platforms that support Java without requiring recompilation.

Additionally, Java supports a lot of features that boost a developer’s ability to develop scalable applications.

The development of applications is made easier by special classes such as Applets, Servlets, JavaServer Pages, etc. Furthermore, Java is supported by a variety of frameworks such as Spring, Dagger, etc. which make the development process easier.

Features of Java

  • It has cross-platform support so run it on any platform after writing it once.
  • It is designed for building object-oriented applications.
  • It has automatic memory management and it is a multithreaded language.
  • Facilitates distributed computing as its network-centric.

C vs Java | Detailed Comparision | 2022 3

Advantages of Java

1. Simple

If a language is easy to learn and understand, then it can be considered simple. Java’s syntax is straightforward, easy to learn, maintain, and understand, and the code is easily debugged.

2. Object-Oriented Programming language

By using Java, we can improve the flexibility and reusability of our code. Our objects can be reused in other programs using the OOPs concept.

We can also enhance security by combining the data and functions into a single unit and not allowing them to be accessed externally. To make the modules easier to understand, the larger modules can also be divided into smaller ones.

3. Secure language

Java reduces security risks and threats by avoiding explicit pointers. Memory access can be unauthorized using a pointer, which stores the address of another value.

Pointers are removed in order to resolve this issue. In Java, we can define access rules for classes through the Security manager for each application.

4. Cheap and Economical to maintain

As Java programs require a specific hardware infrastructure to run, they are relatively inexpensive to develop and maintain. Having the ability to execute them on any machine reduces the cost of maintaining them.

Disadvantages of Java

1. Slow and Poor Performance

Compared to native languages like C and C++, Java is significantly slower and consumes more memory.

The JVM adds an extra layer of abstraction and compilation that causes slow performance. In addition, sometimes the garbage collector causes Java to perform poorly as it consumes a lot of CPU time

2. No Backup Facility

Java is mainly focused on data storage and does not focus on data backup. The user ratings and interest in it fall as a result of this drawback.

3. Verbose and Complex codes

Java codes are verbose, which means they contain many words and complex sentences that are difficult to understand. Java codes are therefore difficult to read.

At the same time, Java focuses on being more manageable, yet it has to compromise that with its overly complex codes and long explanations for every single thing.

Difference Between C vs Java

CJava
Programming in C is procedural.The Java programming language is all about object-oriented programming.
C binds gaps between machine-level languages and high-level languages, it is regarded as a middle-level language.A Java interpreter or compiler converts code into machine language, making it a high-level language.
The code in C is compiled and translated into machine language so it can be understood by the computer.The Java VM (Java Virtual Machine) is an interpreter that translates code into bytecode and then executes it.
In C, malloc can be used to allocate memoryA new Java keyword can be used to allocate memory.
C is a low-level language. Users may find it difficult to interpret, but the significance of the code is closer to the machine level.A Java interpreter or compiler converts code into machine language, making it a high-level language.
C does not support Threading.Java supports the use of threading.
C supports pointers.Java does not support pointers.
It is not portable.It is portable.
C is platform-dependent.Java is platform-independent.
In C, the type-checking does not take place during the compilation and running process, so strict type-checking does not take place.Java is robust.
There is no direct way to handle exceptions in C, so there is no way to maintain the normal flow of the program during exception handling.Exception Handling is supported in Java.
It follows a top-down approach.Java follows a bottom-up approach.
C supports Preprocessors.Java does not support Preprocessors.

Conclusion

There are a lot of other programming languages but the most basic and important language for newbie coders to start with is C or Java.

These are the language that will help to grow the basics for any other languages and You can choose between any of them.

But there are some factors that are important when choosing between those two languages because there is some difference between c and java and those are Development, Competitive Coding, Use cases, etc that you should keep in mind.

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